Exercise No.17
"Shapes and sizes"


Exercise name:

Shapes and sizes

Which cognitive area is it related to?

Concentrations, Tactile memory, Working memory

Description of the exercise:

Producing different kinds of simple and bidimensional objects, also with different sizes, so the person has to find an unique object in form, shape and size, given by another person. First of all, it will be seen that object, subject will have some time to focus on the form, shape and size and after that, it will be covered this object and the subject needs to find the same object in a group of objects with different forms, shapes and sizes.

It could be used in every stage of dementia, but in early stages, the difficulty could be increased with several objects with similar shapes or sizes. In late stages, it will be used popular forms without difficulty.


The facilitator spread on the table the different objects that it will be used in this exercise. It is recommended that they are simple and recognisable shapes such as circle, sun, moon, umbrella, etc. with 4 different sizes. Facilitator or other participant has to select one object from the different options before the participant is in front of the table.

When the object is selected, all other objects are moved aside, and the chosen object is covered. Subject comes to the table and the object is shown; the time available for the subject to see and touch the object depends on the level of the stage of dementia, in early stages could be given 15 seconds and this could be increased until 1 minute according to the specific case of the subject. Facilitator tells the subject to focus on the shape and size of the object in order to try to remind everything.

After that, it is proposed another exercise (it could be done any of the other ones of this project) and after some time, it is prepared all the objects in a table (including the selected one) and the subject has to find the selected object between all the rest of objects, which is the one with the same shape and size than the one that he/she has seen before. Subject could see and touch every object and he/she could use the time that he/she needs to do this activity.

Who is the game for – The game is suitable for professionals in a day center and residential service, as well as for a family caring for a loved one with dementia. It is suitable for people with mild to moderate dementia.

Necessary materials – pre-made various figures to be reminded – triangles, squares, circles, stars, clouds, moons, umbrellas etc. in various sizes (it is recommended, at least, 4 different sizes). All materials must be placed in the Memory Box. Difficulty could be Increased with different colours or with similar objects with slightly differences.

Preliminary preparation – All objects should be in the Box.

Participants – it could be between 1 and a group of 2 to more people with the caregiver.

Location – Choose a quiet place where the person with dementia and the person around you feel comfortable, e.g., around a dining table or coffee table where the materials can be placed.

Presentation – explain what you will do together, in a calm and fun way. Ask someone to take the materials out of the Memory Box. If other subject is going to select the object, explain the objective of the activity. After that, show the selected object to the person with dementia and explain him/her that it is necessary to remind the shape and size (or other characteristics if is necessary) and let them time to do it. After other alternative activity, prepare all the objects and give the instructions of finding the selected object among all of the objects.

Congratulations on the nicely done job.

How can this model be used at home and in residential care/nursing homes?

Dementia affects a person’s cognitive functions, self-identity, memory and concentration. It develops gradually and leads to a change of personality. People with dementia have a problem with memory, which leads to recall difficulties and problems with speech, coordination, abstract thinking, concentration, planning, orientation with regard to place and time, frequent mood swings.

It could be applied in every place, facilitator has to prepare the exercise considering the symptoms of the subject, in case that the symptoms are severe, it will be used clear differences between objects and in the worst cases, subject could have more time to see and touch the object. In case it is to be used in severe stages of dementia, two copies of each object can be printed and the subject can visually compare the model with all the objects, in order to select the one that is identical.

This type of exercise will stimulate

  • Working memory
  • Short memory
  • Concentration
  • Visual and tactile memory
  • Attention
  • Speech

it’s an activity to be done with family members or even with formal caregiver. it would help the person to remember objects and its main features and to compare with similar objects to find the same one. The subject needs to be focused on details (form, shape, size…)

What benefits can be obtained with its use?

This exercise will help in several processes

  • Use and train working and short memory in a safe environment
  • Use and train visual and tactile memory in a safe environment
  • Concentration
  • Attention to details

Technical specification of the model



Colour (One piece one colour):

Different colours

Suitable dimensions for its use in the classroom (MM):

Height: 1cm

Sizes: from 2cm x 2cm up to 10cm x 10cm

Should the piece be resistant or be subjected to stress?


Should it be printed during meeting with person with dementia, before or after?


Do you have to paint the model?

No (except if colour would be used as an option)

Number of pieces of which the model is composed:

Depending on the number of objects but each one is composed by 1 piece (it is recommended 4 sizes in each object)

Ensemble type if necessary (slot, clip, screwed ...)


Accuracy and definition required. (Quality) Low, mid or High.



STL files viewer

Good luck!